skin care according to age
The skin of infants and children is drier and more sensitive than adult skin. Two thirds of 6 to 9 year-olds have dry skin. Therefore, especially skin care products suited for dry skin should be used.
Mild cleansing lotions with a pH between 4 and 6 are recommended. It is important to rinse thoroughly.
Products free of common allergens and irritants should be preferred.
In dry skin, water in oil-emulsions (mixtures with more oil/ lipids than water) with a pH between 4 and 6 are recommended. Otherwise, oil in water-emulsions (mixtures with more water than oil/ lipids) may be appropriate.
The use of perfumes and heavily scented skin care products is not recommended in 6 - 12 year olds, as the risk for developping allergies (fragrance allergy etc.) is still unknown.
Water-proofed sunscreens free of fragrances and preservatives with high protective factors (15 and more) are recommended. Physical suncreens based on micropigment are preferrable. In children, lipid-enriched products up to water in oil-emulsions (mixtures with more oil/ lipids than water) may be preferred over hydrogels.
Around the age of 12, the skin is fully developed and similar to the adult skin concerning its morphological and physiological characteristics. Skin cleansing and skin care should occur according to the individual skin type.
Water-proofed sunscreens free of fragrances and preservatives with high protective factors (15 and more) are recommended. In oily skin, sunscreens based on hydrogels are preferrable.
Skin cleansing and skin care should occur according to the individual skin type.
In elderly persons, the skin shows typical structural changes. Epidermis and dermis get thinner, the blood circulation is diminished, and sebum and sweat production are decreased. This results in a hydrolipid film (emulsion of water, sweat, lipids and horny cells on the skin surface) of inferior quality, leading to dry, nonresistant skin.
Acidic (pH 4 - 6) mild cleansing products should be used. Products enriched with moisturisers are recommended. Oil baths are also perfectly suited, but the risk of slipping and falling in the shower or bath tub should be taken into account.
Moisturisers are used to increase the amount of lipids (fatty substances) in the horny layer, to reduce water loss and to soothe the skin. Water in oil-emulsions (mixtures with more oil/ lipids than water) should be preferred. The lipid film smoothes the cragged skin surface and prevents a further loss of water from the epidermis. Skin care products for the elderly should also contain water-binding ingredients such as urea, lactic acid, hyaluronic acid and glycerin.
Besides lipids, so-called lipid precursors are also recommended, as they are transformed into lipids in the skin. Lactic acid is such a lipid precursor, which is turned into ceramide (a special lipid or fatty substance of the epidermis).
The use of sunscreens makes sense even if a high UV exposure has occurred in the past. Studies could show that even with an existing skin damage because of chronic UVB exposure, the evolution of skin cancer could be prevented by the use of sunscreens with high protection factors.
Therefore, sunscreens with high protective factors (15 and more) are recommended.